Encyclopedia >> Encyclopedia of Armenian Culture >> Science (XIX century -the beginning of the XX century)

 SCIENCE (XIX  century — the beginning of the XX century).  A considerable progress in science especially in the field of the Armenian studies  was recorded in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. For a long time, the most important achievements in the field of Armenian history, language, bibliography and Armenian geography have 

Ghevond Alishanbeen associated with the effective activity of Mkhitaryan Congregtion. Thorough studies concerning the Armenian history and geography were made by Ghukas Indjidjian at the beginning of the 19th century. Hovsep Gatrjian was famous for his linguistic research dedicated to the classical Armenian.  

He was the first scholar who wrote and published a two-volume manual of world history in 1849-1852. In the 19th century, the Armenian Studies developed in France. Among the most prominent scholars were Édouard Dulaurier  and Marie Brosset. The latter moved to Russia and carried out his activity in the field of Armenian and Georgian History and Philology.

At the end of the 19th century, attempts were made to present the complete image of the Armenian History. Stepan Palasanyan’s work The Armenian History from the beginning to the present published in 1890, served as an educational manual for years. In his four-volume book Analysis of the Armenian History Anton Garadashian analyzed the process of the Armenian History from ancient times until the end of the 5th century. He is the founder of analytical Historiography.  Prominent Armenologists Barsegh  Sargisian and Karapet  Ter-Mkrtchian  wrote valuable works dedicated to the medieval sectarian movements in Armenia.

In the second half of the 19th century, Russian and European university centers were engaged in the development of Armenian Studies. The Professor of the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages Mkrtich Emin played a significant role in the field of the translation of Armenian medieval historians’ writings and in the research of Armenian ethnography and beliefs. Kerovbe Patkanian, who was one of his students, carried out his activity at Saint Petersburg University and made extensive studies on the old Armenian history, language and bibliography. Another student of Mkrtich Emin, Grigor Khalatyants continued his teacher’s activities at the Lazarev Institute.

The famous poet and great Armenologist-historian, Ghevond Alishan who has never been in Armenia created the image of Armenia in his works. The voluminous works concerning to particular states of medieval Armenia (Shirak, Ayrarat, Sisakan) are especially remarkable. In the last years of his life, Alishan prepared a two-volume large work called Hayapatum, or Armenian History which is a huge contribution in the research of Armenian medieval Historiography. 

At the beginning of the 20th century there were new achievements in Armenian History Studies. Various valuable theoretical and analytical works were created. Nikoghayos Adonts, the professor of Saint Petersburg University, who was the student of the prominent specialist of Caucasian Studies and Armenian Studies Nicholas Marr, wrote monumental works dedicated to the History of medieval Armenia and Armenian Philology.

Malachia Ormanian In 1908, one of the masterpieces of the Armenian Studies Armenia in the Age of Justinian  by Nikoghayos Adonts was published in Russian. In this fundamental research, the author touched upon the issues of the history of feudalism in Armenia, the historical geography of the country and Byzantine-Armenian relations.

 From 1920 Adonts lived and worked in London, Paris, then in Brussels. His works were published in international prestigious journals.

The massive heritage of Leo (Arkel Babakhanian) includes historical, literary and publicistic works. The historian touched upon the Armenian public-political history of the 19th century. He commented on the Armenian issue many times (in some cases in the wrong ways). He wrote a number of works that illustrate the history of Armenian culture. At the beginning of the 20th century Leo planned to write the complete history of Armenia, but he was not able to completely carry out his intention.

In his lifetime, Leo published only the first volume of his monumental work called History of Armenia and the other two volumes were published after his death. The three-volume work The History of Nation by former patriarch of Constantinople Malachia Ormanian was published in 1912-1927 which presents the history of the Armenian Church from the very beginning until the beginning of the 20th century. Considering the History of Church as the axis of Armenian History, the scholar illustrated Holy Sees, sectarian movements and history of political important events in details. 

Another prominent scholar who stood out with his scientific work was Garegin Hovsepyan.  He devoted a number of works to the study of the Armenian medieval culture, especially to the study of miniature, the art of writing, paleography, architecture and the art of construction. Later the scholar’s a three-volume masterpiece The Khaghbakians or the  Proshians in the Armenian History was published. 


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